High elevation pines have ecological significance

White pine seeds are a source of food for birds and mammals. The seeds of high elevation white pines are a major source of sustenance for wildlife such as rodents, the grizzly bear and Clark”s Nutcracker. Some of these sub-alpine white pines also serve as pioneer species capable of establishing succession on harsh sites after disturbance.

Visit the following web sites for more information on ecological concerns pertaining to mortality of high elevation white pines due to white pine blister rust.

http://www.whitebarkfound.org/ (whitebark pine)
http://www.nrmsc.usgs.gov/research/whitebar.htm (whitebark pine)
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/pinari/all.html (Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine)
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/pinlon/all.html (Great Basin bristlecone pine)
http://www.nrmsc.usgs.gov/research/limber.htm (Limber pine)
http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/landscapes/Fire/Fireregen.shtml (Limber pine, Rock Mountain bristlecone pine)